Want to learn more about the history of Austria and its culture? These famous historical landmarks in Austria will make you want to pack your bags and visit this iconic country right away!
Austria is a country rich in history. From landmarks that tell of the ancient times to landmarks that speak of art and culture; landmarks in Austria abound!
Many landmarks have been declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites and are listed in a register called Austria’s Denkmalliste.
While others are lesser-known to non-Austrians, they remain at the forefront of Austrian pride and heritage.
Throughout the ages, landmarks in Austria have been a source of joy and celebration but have also been reasons for strife.
Here are some of Austria’s famous landmarks that still stand strong after decades, even centuries.
Table of Contents
- Most Famous Historical Landmarks in Austria
- Column of Pest (Column of the Trinity)
- The Hofburg
- Aggstein Castle
- Mirabell Palace
- St. Anne’s Column
- Mauthausen Memorial
- Altstadt Innsbruck
- Burgruine Dürnstein
- Hochosterwitz Castle
- Katzenturm Feldkirch
- Fortress Hohensalzburg
- Thurn Pass
Most Famous Historical Landmarks in Austria
Column of Pest (Column of the Trinity)
The Column of Pest (Column of the Trinity) is a memorial column in Vienna, Austria. It was erected in 1673 as a monument to the plague that devastated the city from 1670 to 1671.
It stands at an important junction on the Graben and is still today a much-loved symbol of both Vienna and Austria’s neighbor (and former partner) Hungary.
The history of this iconic landmark dates back to 1393 when the last Turkish siege following the second Siege of Vienna led to an enormous number of deaths.
The city then suffered its worst-ever plague in 1670-1671 with over 38,000 people dying from it in December 1670 alone. It became known as the “Great Plague” and remains one of the darkest periods in Viennese history.
A 17th-century document records that large numbers of men, women, and children gathered in the Graben before the city gates, singing hymns and begging for God’s mercy.
When they saw a funeral procession coming through the gate, their hopes were raised. It is said that as the hearse passed by some of them even tried to touch the coffin believing that if they were touched by the corpse, they too would be saved.
However, in a moment of divine inspiration one man realized that the funeral procession was actually coming from an infected house and warned his comrades to stay back.
Sadly most did not heed his warning and caught the deadly disease themselves.
A memorial column was erected on this spot in 1673. It was meant to commemorate the victims of the plague and to remind people of their duty to God.
The architect placed a circular opening at the base so that it would resemble an altar and would remind people of their prayers for divine forgiveness.
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Field Marshal Karl Philipp Borromäus zu Schwarzenberg was an Austrian army officer in the early-19th century. Schwarzenberg-Denkmal in Vösendorf, Austria memorializes the man who played a significant role in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig.
The monument is located on an island just off the shoreline near Vösendorf, part of Vienna’s 23rd district. It was erected as a token of gratitude for his hard-won victory.
Designed in 1831 by the architect Franz Joseph Hetzendorf von Hohenschild, it depicts a tall Schwarzenberg, standing confidently on a granite pillar.
The monument is covered with a thick layer of gold leaf, which was added at the request of Emperor Francis himself to add majesty to the statue.
Schwarzenberg-Denkmal is a popular tourist attraction in Vienna and has become a symbol of Austria’s long history. The monument also commemorates the countless soldiers who lost their lives fighting for the country in the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as a de facto memorial for the Austrian Army in general.
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The Hofburg is the former home of the Habsburg family – one of Europe’s most prominent noble families. The family has been around for a long time and their dynasty’s reach once spanned thrones across Europe.
Nowadays the family is a shadow of its former self. It is in Vienna and people can visit if they want to.
It also functioned as the royal winter season house, as Schönbrunn Royal residence was the summer season house.
Since 1946 it is the palace and office of the President of Austria. Since 1279 the Hofburg location has been the documented seat of Austrian governance.
The Hofburg has been increased over the centuries to include numerous houses with the Amalienburg and also the Albertina, the royal chapel Hofkapelle or Burgkapelle, the imperial collection Hofbibliothek, the treasury Schatzkammer, and also the Burgtheater.
In front of the palace sits the Heldenplatz (Heroes Square), ordered under the regime of Emperor Franz Joseph I, as a component of what was supposed to end up being the Kaiserforum, yet was never completed.
Numerous designers have added to the Hofburg as it grew over the years, most notably the Italian architect/engineers Filiberto Luchese, Lodovico Burnacini, and Martino, as well as Domenico Carlone.
The Baroque engineers Lukas von Hildebrandt and Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach, Johann Fischer von Erlach, and the designers of the Neue Burg constructed in beaux-arts style in the style of designs by Heinrich von Ferstel.
Most famous is certainly the architect Meinhard von Pfankuch brought in from Innsbruck and his successor Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, who developed a neoclassical internal design for the building which has been preserved almost entirely between 1881 and 1913.
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The ruins of Aggstein is a famous landmark castle on the Danube river in Wachau, Austria. The castle was constructed in the 11th century as a result of Count Ulrich II. It is positioned on the Aggsteine rock, which hence the title “Aggstein”.
The Aggstein Castle has been established as an imperial castle and estate in 1193. The residence for Frederick I, Duke of Austria (1156-1198).
The castle was vital due to its strategic significance as an observation post and crossing point over the Danube. It ended up being featured by the Babenbergs in their power struggles with the Bavarian dukes along the Danube border.
The castle has been presented to various nobles who were responsible for safeguarding or managing it: Ulrich II Count of Wasserburg, Friedrich IV the Elder, and Friedrich V.
After the Dukes died out in 1242, it was left to Duke Leopold VI. The castle burned down in 1526 when a housewife cooking sausages started an accidental fire. The ruins still stand today and are landmarks that see thousands of tourists.
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Uhrturm, sitting at 473 meters (or 1,552 ft) above sea level, is on a tree-clad hillside, and the site of a fortress, in the center of the city of Graz, Austria.
The hill is now a public park and is a great vantage point for incredible views of the city. It is the home of numerous amusement locations, cafés, and dining establishments, and is managed by Holding Graz, the city’s utility company.
The hill has been carefully planted with trees, and likewise contains a small stream named the Uhrbach. It is commonly known among Austrians as “the wooded city.”
On completion, the city wall that surrounded Graz ended up being 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) in length and 5-7 meters (16-23 ft) high, having 15 towers, 4 of which were to the south where the present-day Uhrturm stands.
Inside this area was the largest square of the town with a cathedral, a weapons bazaar as well as a county seat. The Uhrturm was constructed in 1342, some decades after Graz had actually been founded.
It is approximated that the tower might have actually been 24 m (80 ft) high with an observation platform on top.
Graz is a city with three sections which are divided by the Mur river: the old town of Graz, the new town of Graz, and Arnautpuhne.
There are a variety of landmarks in each area and most will be found in either old or new Graz.
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Address: Mirabellplatz, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
Rating: 4.5 out of 5
In 1606 prince-archbishop Wolf Dietrich erected Mirabell Palace for his mistress, Salome Alt, and their children. It now serves as the setting for some of the most romantic weddings imaginable.
Once named “Altenau” by the Prince-Archbishop, the palace was re-named “Mirabell” by his successor Markus Sitticus von Hohenems. The name was derived from two Italian words: mirabile, which means ‘admirable’ and bella, or ‘beautiful’.
During this time, the Mirabell Palace was situated on the outskirts of Salzburg’s city walls. It became enclosed within Salzburg’s city area when Prince-Archbishop Paris von Lodron constructed new city walls and fortification.
With several remodeling efforts between between 1721 – 1727, Prince-Archbishop Franz Anton von Harrach was responsible for turning the stately palace into a full-on baroque palace complex.
Today, the Mirabell Palace is home to the mayor’s offices and the city’s administration, as well as a popular space for grand weddings.
The palace’s breathtaking Marble Hall, which was once a banquet hall for prince-archbishops, is touted by many to be one of the world’s most beautiful wedding halls.
The Pegasus Fountain and the Angel Staircase are often used as backdrops for thousands of wedding photographs.
In front of the Mirabell Palace is the equally famous Mirabell Gardens, made famous by “The Sound of Music” where the Von Trapp children sang “Do-Re-Mi”.
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St. Anne’s Column
It was offered its name when, in 1703, the last Bavarian troops were driven from the Tyrol on St. Anne’s Day 26 July, as part of the Battle of the Spanish Sequence.
In 1704, in gratitude, the Landstände promised to build a monolith honoring the event. A contest was arranged to pick the best design.
The appeal was won by the architect Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, who built a Baroque column with four figures; St. Anne on a pedestal is at its base and three women representing Tyrolia above her.
Four statues of virtues complete the monument in triangular niches flanking the column.
All were crafted by local sculptor Ignaz Kuranda. The monument was completed in 1719 and erected on 26 July 1720 to commemorate the event of 1632 as well as the expulsion of Bavarian troops from Tyrol.
The Four Seasons are represented by one woman from each province – Oberinntal (Spring), Unterinntal (Summer), Pinzgau (Autumn), and Hochpustertal (Winter).
The monument is 25.5 meters in height and is constructed of rubble masonry, limestone ashlar, brickwork as well as plaster. The statues were finished in sandstone with the help of white paint.
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The Mauthausen Memorial, also known as the Mauthausen concentration camp, was one of Nazi Germany’s first concentration camp complexes and also the last to be liberated.
Perched on a hill in Mauthausen, Upper Austria, Mauthausen played a significant role during the holocaust, serving as the main camp to a group of over 40 subcamps located all over southern Germany and Austria.
The town’s status as a quarrying center encouraged the Nazis to establish a concentration camp here where prisoners were forced to carry massive stone blocks up 186 steps.
It is also known as the Stairway to Death as this caused many casualties from the camp quarry.
Today, the concentration camp is now a memorial where travelers can honor the lives of more than 100,000 prisoners who passed away or were executed here or learn more about the holocaust and its history.
It was only in 1970 the memorial was turned into an educational museum. A visit is a grim look into Nazi history, where travelers can walk through a few of the camp’s remaining living quarters and the infamous gas chambers.
The camp’s previous Sick Quarters is now an exhibit where visitors can view artifacts, charts, and photos of prisoners and their guards curated by former Mauthausen prisoner, Hans Marsalek.
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The Altstadt Innsbruck or Inner City is the old town of Innsbruck, it consists of three parts: Innere Stadt (lit. Inner City), Leopoldstadt and Augustinergasse, as well as a series of small hamlets to the south.
The Goldenes Dachl is the central part of Innsbruck and includes Ambras Castle, Schloss Hof Residenzplatz and Maria-Theresien-Platz with Zetthaus, as well as Hofgarten.
In front of the Hofburg is Leopold Square, which has been used as a stadium from time to time.
The old town area is home to many shops, hotels, restaurants, and bars.
There are many spectacular landmarks in Innsbruck’s inner city, including the Old City Hall on Residenzplatz or Stallburggasse 16.
Also the Goldenes Dachl on Ambras Castle, the Wasserspeicher (a water tower) on Hof Square, and also Zum Schwarzen Kameel Stadtsteig 14.
The inner city is connected to all four directions of the compass by streets. To the north are Maria Theresien Straße and the Arx Schnabelgut, to the south is Schlossallee and Puntigam Square, which runs over into Westbahnstraße.
To the east are Swarzenberg-Passage and Barcaccia Bridge. To the west is Schwabentorbrücke (Swabian Gate Bridge). The Johanniterbrücke runs from the west to the north along with the Inn River.
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Triumphpforte is among the best-known sights in the Austrian city of Innsbruck. It lies at the southerly end of the existing Maria-Theresien-Straße when the southern roadway out of the city.
By the ecliptic, it is a noteworthy example of Renaissance architecture.
The three-arched structure was at first built as part of the Spanischer Bau, or “Spanish Building”.
In 1583-88 to join the Hofgarten with the new square and Emperor Maximilian’s people could stroll under it from one area to another without getting hit with rain or snow.
The Emperor’s eagle, placed on the column in 1588 by Hans Krumpper, has actually been changed a few times. It was most recently restored in 1985. These renovations aside, it is currently the oldest monumental sculpture in Innsbruck
The Triumphpforte is 25 meters (82 ft) high consisting of a triple archway resting on six Corinthian columns. The carving over the entrance depicts Emperor Maximilian I and his 2 daughters, Archduchesses Anna and Kunigunde.
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Dürnstein Castle German: Burgruine Dürnstein is the spoil of a middle ages rock castle in Austria. It is situated in Dürnstein, in the Lower Austrian Wachau region on the Danube river, at 312 meters (or 1,024 feet) above sea level.
Dürnstein Castle was built by the Knights Hospitaller between 1135 and 1237. It was named in memory of one of the monks that founded Klosterneuburg Abbey, Saint Sturmius. The castle has been enlarged several times over the centuries.
The siege of Dürnstein is an example of the operation of medieval siege technology. The castle was commanded by Leopold von Dürnstein until the castle fell to the Ottomans in 1489 during their campaign into Central Europe.
Founded over a thousand years ago in the year 1001 AD, Klosterneuburg Abbey is one of Austria’s oldest monasteries.
It is situated on the left bank of the River Danube, directly opposite its larger sister monastery – which is also known as Klosterneuburg – and was founded by Duke Ottokar III of Styria in 1340 AD.
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Semmeringbahn in Austria, which starts at Gloggnitz and leads over the Semmering to Mürzzuschlag, was the very first mountain train in Europe constructed with a common gauge track.
The railway is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site.
It is commonly described as the world’s first true hill train, given the extremely hard surface as well as the substantial altitude that needed to be conquered throughout its construction.
It is still totally practical as a part of the Austrian Southern Railway, which is operated by the Austrian Federal Railways.
The Semmering railway was intended to connect Vienna with the Carinthian coast and Trieste and was one of the most significant civil engineering tasks that had ever been realized on the European continent.
It was constructed between 1848 and 1854 in order to open up trade connections to Trieste which had actually just been recognized as a vital port in the wake of the Treaty of Campo Formio.
The Semmering railway job was one of Vienna’s first and at that time most ambitious rail projects.
It brought fame to engineers like Carl Ritter von Ghega, Major Josef Grafl and also Eduard van der Nüll as well as their workers who developed the very first hill train in the world.
On its 155 kilometer route, the railway passes through 8 tunnels and over 2,000 bridges (including the Semmering Viaduct), for this reason producing a significant expanse of memorials.
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Hochosterwitz Castle is a famous landmark castle in Austria and is certainly one of the most awe-inspiring medieval castles on earth.
Built-in a former dolomite quarry near Sankt Georgen am Längsee, eastern of the community of Sankt Veit an der Glan in Carinthia, the fortress on top of a 172-meter (or 564 ft) high rock is one of the state’s landmarks and amongst its most visited historical sites.
It is one of the very first stone castles to be built in Carinthia with a very long history and also a nearly unblemished structure that has survived for nearly 800 years.
It was constructed between 1192 and 1240 as a middle ages quarry castle on behalf of Archbishop Hartwig II of Salzburg, who named it Hochosterwitz Castle (High Rock of Wiese).
It was constructed in the Romanesque style and is located at an altitude of 625 meters (2,053 feet) above sea level.
It is unknown why work on it stopped in 1240 or how long it took to build under Hartwig’s watch, however, a lack of money is the most likely option.
It is among Carinthia’s most prominent landmarks after the original castle was burned down by a fire in 1445.
In 1554, it returned to Salzburg, and also after that, it never suffered that level of devastation again. It was renovated in Baroque style between 1752 as well as 1757 when its current name of Hochosterwitz was given to it.
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Katzenturm Feldkirch is a tower in Austria, constructed in the year 1634 at Feldkirch within the federal state of Vorarlberg. It was one of the very first landmarks built with due regard to the latest available safety technology.
The tower can be found on Castle Hill which is also referred to as the Hofberg hill, the very same name it carries today. It is among the most famous landmarks in all of Austria.
This tower was the first landmark in Vorarlberg to be constructed as a safe-keeping building. The Katzenturm Feldkirch is one of the very first landmarks that actually made use of an external staircase inside a stone framework.
The tower is also among Austria’s landmarks and has been known by various nicknames; Tillis Glockl, Lyra, and also Feldkirchner Oblatenhaus.
It is commonly believed that the name Katzenturm came from the fact that the tower was utilized for storing wheat. This theory has yet to be proven by any conclusive evidence.
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Fortress Hohensalzburg is a large medieval fortress in the city of Salzburg, Austria. It rests atop the Festungsberg at an elevation of 506 meters. It was put up at the behest of Prince-Archbishops of Salzburg.
The fortress is 250 meters (or 820 feet) long and 150 meters (or 490 feet) wide. It has a surface area of 30,000 square meters (or 3.9 acres) and has 365 windows and 34 towers.
It is among the most famous landmarks in Austria and also among its most visited landmarks since it houses various museums like the Museum of Sound, as well as the Salzburg City Museum, which chronicles the history of Salzburg from prehistoric times to the early modern age.
It houses a display of 15th Century weapons and also houses a library with over 60,000 volumes including one of the most comprehensive collections of music in Europe dating from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance.
The fortress is made up of two parts, Hohensalzburg Castle (originally the residence of the prince-archbishops) and the Salzburg Fortress which was established by Don Hugo at the beginning of the 13th Century.
The fortress was built to defend against hostile forces from Italy specifically those from Milan.
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The Thurn Pass is a high mountain pass in the Austrian Alps. The road from Kranzberg to Ried leads over it between Muggenbrunn and Maria Alm.
It is closed for visitors during the winter period, which lasts from 1 November until the end of April. In winter there are only paths open along some of the slopes.
It is one of the few places in the High Tauern that doesn’t have glaciers or permanent snowfields.
It got its name from a small village below it called Thurn, but because of mining operations, it was never rebuilt – probably because of its remote location.
The Thurn Pass was a former border crossing between Salzburg and Upper Bavaria (as part of the so-called “Pilgerweg” or Peddlers’ Way).
It had been used for centuries by itinerant merchants, beggars, recluses, and pilgrims traveling to Rome and Santiago.
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